Sources & Product Research

Here is a complete list of all of our sources. If you have any suggested reading, we would love to hear from you. We're constantly gathering new information.


Biotin (Vitamin B7)
1. Dakshinamurti, K. (2003) Regulation of gene expression by biotin, vitamin B6 and vitamin C. Daniel, H. Zempleni,
J. eds. Molecular Nutrition 2003 CABI Publishing Oxfordshire, UK.
2. Wiedmann S, Eudy JD, Zempleni J: Biotin supplementation increases expression of genes encoding interferon-
gamma, interleukin-1beta, and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and decreases expression of the gene encoding
interleukin-4 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Nutr 2003;133:716-719.

d-Alpha Tocopherol (Vitamin E)
1. Traber MG. Utilization of vitamin E. Biofactors. 1999;10(2-3):115-120.
2. Glynn RJ, Ridker PM, Goldhaber SZ, Zee RY, Buring JE (2007). "Effects of random allocation to vitamin E
supplementation on the occurrence of venous thromboembolism: report from the Women's Health Study".
Circulation 116 (13): 1497–503.
3. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of
coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(20):1450-1456.

Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
1. Zhang S, Willet WC, Selhub J, et al. Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, homocysteine and risk of breast
cancer. JNCI. 2003;95:373–380.
3. Thomson SW, Heimburger DC, Cornwell PE, et al. Correlates of total plasma homocysteine: folic acid, copper, and
cervical dysplasia. Nutrition. 2000;16(6):411-416.

Methylcobalamin (Vitamin B12)
2. Hashimoto S, Kohsaka M, Morita N, Fukuda N, Honma S, Honma K (December 1996). "Vitamin B12 enhances the
phase-response of circadian melatonin rhythm to a single bright light exposure in humans".Neuroscience Letters
220 (2): 129–32.
3. Tsao CS, Myashita K. Influence of cobalamin on the survival of mice bearing ascites tumor.Pathobiology.

Niacin (Vitamin B3)
1. Marks, Jay W. (2005). "Niacin Monograph". MedicineNet, Inc..
2. Katzung, Bertram G. (2006). Basic and clinical pharmacology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.
3. McGovern ME (2005). "Taking aim at HDL-C. Raising levels to reduce cardiovascular risk". Postgrad Med 117 (4):
29–30, 33–5, 39 passim.
4. Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, et al. (1986). "Fifteen year mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-
term benefit with niacin". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 8 (6): 1245–55.
5. Jonas WB, Rapoza CP, Blair WF. The Effect of Niacinamide on Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study. Inflamm Res.
6. Prousky J, Sykes E. Two case reports on the treatment of acute migraine with niacin. Its hypothetical mechanism of
action upon calcitonin-gene related peptide and platelets. J Orthomol Med. 2003;18:108–10

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)
1. Naruta, E., Buko, V. (2001). Hypolipidemic effect of pantothenic acid derivatives in mice with hypothalamic obesity
induced by aurothioglucose. Experimental and Toxologic Pathology. 53: 393-398.
2. Rokitzki L, Sagredos A, Reuss F, et al. Pantothenic acid levels in blood of athletes at rest and after aerobic exercise.
Z Ernahrungswiss 1993;32(4):282-288 1993.
3. Tsigos, C., & Chrousos, G.P. The neuroendocrinology of the stress response. In: Hunt, W., & Zakhari, S., eds.
Stress, Gender, and Alcohol-Seeking Behavior. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Research
Monograph No. 29. Bethesda, MD: the Institute, 1995.

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
1. Selhub J, Jacques PF, Bostom AG, D'Agostino RB, Wilson PW, Belanger AJ, O'Leary DH, Wolf PA, Scaefer EJ,
Rosenberg IH. Association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and extracranial carotid-artery stenosis. N
Engl J Med 1995; 332:286-291.
2. Leklem JE. Vitamin B6. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, ed. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th
ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1999: 413-421.
3. Chandra R and Sudhakaran L. Regulation of immune responses by Vitamin B6. NY Acad Sci 1990; 585:404-423.

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
1. Parsons, M. J., P. K. Ku, D. E. Ullrey, H. D. Stowe, P. A. Whetter, and E. R. Miller. 1985. Effects of riboflavin
supplementation and selenium source on selenium metabolism in the young pig. J. Anim. Sci., 60:451.
2. Boehnke C., Reuter U., Flach U., and et al., High-dose riboflavin treatment is efficacious in migraine prophylaxis: an
open study in a tertiary care centre 2004 Jul;11(7):475-7

Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
1. Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, editors. Krause's food, nutrition, & diet therapy. 10th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders
Company; 2000.
2. Takabe, M. and Itokawa, Y. (1983) Thiamin depletion after ethanol and acetaldehyde administration to rabbits.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 29, 509–514.

Vitamin C
1. Thurnham, D. I.. 1997. Micronutrients and immune function: some recent developments. J. Clin. Pathol. 50:887.
2. Jacob RA, Sotoudeh G. Vitamin C function and status in chronic disease. Nutr Clin Care 2002;5:66-74.
3. McGregor GP, Biesalski HK. Rationale and impact of vitamin C in clinical nutrition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
2006; 9:697–703.
4. Carr AC, Frei B. Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health
effects in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:1086-107.
5. Frei B, England L, Ames BN. Ascorbate is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma. Proc Natl Acad Sci
USA 1989;86:6377-81.


1. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Chromium. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K,
boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington,
D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:197-223.
2. Roeback Jr. JR, Hla KM, Chambless LE, Fletcher RH. Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med
3. Abraham AS, Brooks BA, Eylath U. The effects of chromium supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in
patients with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Metabolism 1992;41:768-71.
4. Hermann J, Arquitt A. Effect of chromium supplementation on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, and glucose in elderly
subjects. Nutr Res 1994;14: 671-4.
5. Stoecker BJ. Chromium. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed.
Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:277-282.
6. Lukaski HC. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(2
7. Rubin MA, Miller JP, Ryan AS, et al. Acute and chronic resistive exercise increase urinary chromium excretion in
men as measured with an enriched chromium stable isotope. J Nutr. 1998;128(1):73-78.

1. Olivares, M. and Uauy, R. (1996b) Copper as an essential nutrient. Copper nutrition in humans: essentiality and
toxicity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 791S–796S.
2. Brewer GJ (2001) Copper Control as an Antiangiogenic Anticancer Therapy: Lessons from Treating Wilson's
Disease. Exp Biol Med 226 (7), 665-673.
3. Leslie M. Klevay. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service,Grand Forks Human
Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND, USA.

1. Wester PO. Magnesium. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45:1305-12.
2. Saris NE, Mervaala E, Karppanen H, Khawaja JA, Lewenstam A. Magnesium: an update on physiological, clinical,
and analytical aspects. Clinica Chimica Acta 2000;294:1-26.
3. Ford ES. Serum magnesium and ischaemic heart disease: Findings from a national sample of US adults. Intl J of
Epidem 1999;28:645-51.
4. Liao F, Folsom A, Brancati F. Is low magnesium concentration a risk factor for coronary heart disease? The
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J 1998;136:480-90.
5. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, Giovannucci EL, Kawachi I, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Intake of potassium,
magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 1998;98:1198-204.
6. Vormann J. Magnesium: nutrition and metabolism. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 2003:24:27-37.
7. Feillet-Coudray C, Coudray C, Tressol JC, Pepin D, Mazur A, Abrams SA. Exchangeable magnesium pool masses in
healthy women: effects of magnesium supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:72-8.

1. Emsley, John (2001). "Manganese". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, UK: Oxford
University Press. pp. 249–253.

1. Gladyshev VN. Selenoproteins and selenoproteomes. In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its
molecular biology and role in human health. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2006:99-114.
2. McKenzie RC, Rafferty TS, Beckett GJ. Selenium: an essential element for immune function. Immunol Today
3. Russo MW, Murray SC, Wurzelmann JI, Woosley JT, Sandler RS. Plasma selenium levels and the risk of colorectal
adenomas. Nutr Cancer 1997;28:125-9.
4. Patterson BH and Levander OA. Naturally occurring selenium compounds in cancer chemoprevention trials: A
workshop summary. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997;6:63-9.
5. Knekt P, Marniemi J, Teppo L, Heliovaara M, Aromaa A. Is low selenium status a risk factor for lung cancer? Am J
Epidemiol 1998;148:975-82.
6. Fleet JC. Dietary selenium repletion may reduce cancer incidence in people at high risk who live in areas with low
soil selenium. Nutr Rev 1997;55:277-9.
7. Shamberger RJ. The genotoxicity of selenium. Mutat Res 1985;154:29-48.
8. Young KL and Lee PN. Intervention studies on cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 1999;8:91-103.
9. Burguera JL, Burguera M, Gallignani M, Alarcon OM, Burgueera JA. Blood serum selenium in the province of Merida,
Venezuela, related to sex, cancer incidence and soil selenium content. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis
10. Combs GF, Clark LC, Turnbull BW. An analysis of cancer prevention by selenium. BioFactors 14 2001; 153-9.

1. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Zinc. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron,
chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.:
National Academy Press; 2001:442-501.
2. Kang YJ, Zhou Z. Zinc prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Mol Aspects Med 2005;26:391-404.


Acai Berry
1. Virgili F, Marino M (November 2008). "Regulation of cellular signals from nutritional molecules: a specific role for
phytochemicals, beyond antioxidant activity". Free Radical Biology & Medicine 45 (9): 1205–16.
2. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Presents Research from the 2007 International Berry Health Benefits
Symposium, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ACS Publications, February 2008.
3. Stoner GD. Black raspberries show multiple defenses in thwarting cancer, The Ohio State University Research
News, undated.
4. Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, Ou B, Patel D, Huang D, Kababick JP (2006). "Phytochemical and nutrient composition
of the freeze-dried amazonian palmberry, Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (acai)". J Agric Food Chem 54 (22): 8598–603.
5. Oliveira de Souza M, Silva M, Silva ME, de Paula Oliveira R, Pedrosa ML. (Dec 17 2009). "Diet supplementation with
acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves biomarkers of oxidative stress and the serum lipid profile in rats."

1. Kuskoski EM, Asuero AG, Morales MT, Fett R (2006). "Wild fruits and pulps of frozen fruits: antioxidant activity,
polyphenols and anthocyanins". Cienc Rural 36 (4 (July/Aug)).
2. Nutrition Facts Comparison of Acerola Juice, Orange Juice, and Apple Juice.

Goji Berry
1. Wu SJ, Ng LT, Lin CC (December 2004). "Antioxidant activities of some common ingredients of traditional chinese
medicine, Angelica sinensis, Lycium barbarum and Poria cocos". Phytother Res 18 (12): 1008–12.
2. He YL, Ying Y, Xu YL, Su JF, Luo H, Wang HF (September 2005). "[Effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on
tumor microenvironment T-lymphocyte subsets and dendritic cells in H22-bearing mice"] (in Chinese). Zhong Xi Yi
Jie He Xue Bao 3 (5): 374–7.
3. Li XM, Ma YL, Liu XJ (May 2007). "Effect of the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on age-related oxidative stress in
aged mice". J Ethnopharmacol 111 (3): 504–11.
4. Jia YX, Dong JW, Wu XX, Ma TM, Shi AY (June 1998). "[The effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharide on vascular
tension in two-kidney, one clip model of hypertension]" (in Chinese). Sheng Li Xue Bao 50 (3): 309–14.
5. Luo Q, Li Z, Huang X, Yan J, Zhang S, Cai YZ (July 2006). "Lycium barbarum polysaccharides: Protective effects
against heat-induced damage of rat testes and H2O2-induced DNA damage in mouse testicular cells and beneficial
effect on sexual behavior and reproductive function of hemicastrated rats". Life Sci. 79 (7): 613–21.
6. Yu MS, Leung SK, Lai SW, et al. Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine Lycium barbarum against
beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. Exp Gerontol . 2005;40(8-9):716-727.
7. Yu MS, Leung SK, Lai SW, et al. (2005). "Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine Lycium barbarum
against beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity". Exp. Gerontol. 40 (8-9): 716–27.
8. Xu DS, Kong TQ, Ma JQ. Biomed Environ Sci 1996 Mar;9(1):67-70 Related Articles, Books Department of
Biochemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China. The inhibitory effect of extracts from
Fructus lycii and Rhizoma polygonati on in vitro DNA breakage by alternariol.


1. Yamashiki M, Nishimura A, Nomoto M, et al. Herbal medicine sho-saiko-to induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha and
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with hepatocellular
carcinoma. J Gastro Hepatol 1996;11:137–42.
2. Utrilla MP, Zarzuelo A, Risco S, et al. Isolation of a saikosaponin responsible for the antiinflammatory activity of
Bupleurum gibralticum Lam root extract. Phytother Res 1991;5:43–5.
3. Motoo Y, Sawabu N. Antitumor effects of saikosaponins, baicalin and baicalein on human hepatoma cell lines.
Cancer Lett 1994;86:91–5.
4. Yamamoto M, Kumagai A, Yamamura Y. Structure and actions of saikosaponins isolated from Bupleurum falcatum
L. I. Anti-inflammatory action of saikosaponins. Arzneim Forsch 1975;25:1021–3.
5. Tian RT, Xie PS, Liu HP. Evaluation of traditional Chinese herbal medicine: Chaihu (Bupleuri Radix) by both high-
performance liquid chromatographic and high-performance thin-layer chromatographic fingerprint and chemometric
analysis. J Chromatogr A . 2009;1216(11):2150-2155.
6. Ikegami F, Sumino M, Fujii Y, Akiba T, Satoh T. Pharmacology and toxicology of Bupleurum root-containing Kampo
medicines in clinical use. Hum Exp Toxicol . 2006;25(8):481-494.

Globe Artichoke
1. Mehmetçik, G., et al. "Effect of pretreatment with artichoke extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and
oxidative stress." Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 2008 Sep; 60(6): 475-80.
2. Speroni, E., et al. “Efficacy of different Cynara scolymus preparations on liver complaints.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003
Jun; 86(2-3): 203-11.
3. Antioxidative and Protective Properties of Extracts from Leaves of the Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against
Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes
4. Inhibition of Cholesterol Biosynthesis in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes by Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.)
5. A.F. Walker et al. Phytotherapy Research 2001; 15: 58-61

Green Tea
1. Jin X, Zheng RH, Li YM. Green tea consumption and liver disease: a systematic review.Liver Int. 2008 May 14.
2. Arteel G.E., Uesugi T., Bevan L.N., Gäbele E., Wheeler M.D., McKim S.E., Thurman R.G. Green tea extract protects
against early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Biol. Chem. 2002;383:663–670.
3. Setiawan VW, Zhang ZF, Yu GP, et al. Protective effect of green tea on the risks of chronic gastritis and stomach
cancer. Int J Cancer. 2001;92(4):600-604.
4. Vinson JA, Teufel K, Wu N. Green and black teas inhibit atherosclerosis by lipid, antioxidant, and fibrinolytic
mechanisms. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(11):3661-5.
5. Yale University. "Green Tea And The 'Asian Paradox'." Journal of the American College of Surgeons 202: 813-825
(May 2006)
6. Kuriyama S, Shimazu T, Ohmori K, et al. (September 2006). "Green Tea consumption and mortality due to
cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in Japan: the Ohsaki study". JAMA 296 (10): 1255–65.

Kudzu Flower
1. Pharmacological studies on Puerariae Flos. IV: Effects of Pueraria thomsonii dried flower extracts on blood ethanol
and acetaldehyde levels in humans. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 2002; Yamazaki T, Hosono T, Matsushita Y,
Kawashima K, Someya M, Nakajima Y, Narui K, Hibi Y, Ishizaki M, Kinjo J, Nohara T. Tsukuba Research Institute,
Ohat's Isan Co. Ltd., Ushiku, Ibaraki, Japan.

1. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from schisandra chinensis protect primary cultures of rat cortical cells from
glutamate-induced toxicity. J Neurosci Res. 2004 May 1;76(3):397-405. Courtesy of; Kim SR, Lee MK, Koo KA, Kim
SH, Sung SH, Lee NG, Markelonis GJ, Oh TH, Yang JH, Kim YC.
2. Opletal, L., Krenkova, M., and Havlickova, P. [Phytotherapeutic aspects of diseases of the circulatory system. 7.
Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.): its composition and biological activity]. Ceska.Slov.Farm. 2001;50(4):173-
3. Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world
4. Panossian A, Wikman G. Pharmacology of Schisandra chinensis Bail.: an overview of Russian research and uses in
medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul 23;118(2):183-212.

Milk Thistle
2. Hikino, H. Kiso, Y., Wagner, H. and Fiegig, M., "Antihepatotoxic actions of flavonolignans from Silybum marianum
fruits", Planta Medica, 1984, 50, pp 248-50
3. Vogel, G., Trost, W., Braatz, R., et al., "Studies on pharmacodynamics, site and mechanism of action of silymarin
the antihpatotoxic principle from Silybum marianum (L.) Gaert"., Arzneim-Forsch, 1975, 25, pp 179-85
4. Wagner, H., Antihepatotoxic flavonoids", in Cody, V., Middleton, E. and Harbourne, J.D. (eds), Plant flavinoids in
Biology and Medicine: Biochemical, Pharmacological and Structure-Activity relationships, Alan R. Liss, New York, NY
1986, pp545-5
5. Wagner, H., "Plant constituents with antihepatotoxic activity", in Beal, J.L. and Reinhard, E. (eds) Natural Products
as Medicinal Agents, Hippokrates-Verlang, Stuttgart, 1981
6. Saller, R., R. Meier, & R. Brignoli. 2001. The use of silymarin in the treatment of liver diseases. Drugs 61(41):
7. Ferenci P, Dragosics B, Dittrich H, et al. Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis
of the liver. J Hepatol 1989;9(1):105-113.
8. McCaleb, Rob "Milk Thistle - An Herbal Detoxifier", Better Nutrition for Today's Living, March 1993.
9. Sonnenbichler J, Zetl I. Stimulating influence of a flavonolignan derivative on proliferation, RNA synthesis and
protein synthesis in liver cells. In Assessment and Management of Hepatobiliary Disease, ed. L Okolicsanyi, G
Csomos, G Crepaldi. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1987, 265-72.

1. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol 1996;13:395-8.
2. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Badakhsh S, Tuma DJ. The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol
Clin Exp Res 1997;21:1100-2.
3. Chambers ST. Betaines: their significance for bacteria and the renal tract. Clin Sci 1995;88:25-7.
4. Journal of Nutrition (2003;133:4125–8).


NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine)
1. Jaya DS, Augstine J, Menon VP. Protective role of N-acetylcysteine against alcohol and paracetamol induced
toxicity. Indian J Clin Biochem. 1994;9:64–71.
2. Sprince, Herbert; Parker, Clarence M.; Smith, George G.; Gonzales, Leon J. (1974), "Protection against
Acetaldehyde Toxicity in the rat by L-cysteine, thiamin and L-2-Methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid", Inflam. Res. 4
(2): 125–30.
3. Ben-Ari Z, Vaknin H, Tur-Kaspa R. N-acetylcysteine in acute hepatic failure (non-paracetamol-induced).
Hepatogastroenterology 2000;47:786–9.
4. Van Schayck CP, Dekhuijzen PNR, Gorgels WJMJ, et al. Are anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory treatments effective
in different subgroups of COPD? A hypothesis. Respir Med 1998;92:1259–64.

1. Green TR, Fellman JH, Eicher AL, Pratt KL. Antioxidant role and subcellular location of hypotaurine and Taurine in
human neutrophils. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1991 Jan 23;1073(1):91-7.
2. Gürer H, Ozgünes H, Saygin E, Ercal N. Antioxidant effect of Taurine against lead-induced oxidative stress. Archives
of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 2001 Nov;41(4):397-402.
3. Das J, Ghosh J, Manna P, Sil PC. Taurine provides antioxidant defense against NaF-induced cytotoxicity in murine
hepatocytes. Pathophysiology 2008 Oct;15(3):181-90. Epub 2008 Aug 3.
4. Sinha M, Manna P, Sil PC. Taurine protects the antioxidant defense system in the erythrocytes of cadmium treated
mice. BMB Reports 2008 Sep 30;41(9):657-63.
5. Bleich S, Degner D (2000): Reversal of ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and lipid peroxidation by taurine: a study
in rats. Alcohol Alcohol 35: 215.
6. Taranukhin AG, Taranukhina EY, Djatchkova IM, Saransaari P, Pelto-Huikko M, Oja SS. Taurine protects immature
cerebellar granullar neurons against acute alcohol administration. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009; 643: 159-67.
7. Park T, Cho K, Park SH, Lee DH, Kim HW. Taurine normalizes blood levels and urinary loss of selenium, chromium,
and manganese in rats chronically consuming alcohol. Adv Exp Med Biol. 643: 407-14, 2009.
8. McCall, Becky (2005-12-28). "The ultimate hangover cure?".
9. M. D. J. Kerai, Catherine J. Waterfield, S. H. Kenyon, D. S. Asker, J. A. Timbrell Taurine: Protective properties
against ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and lipid peroxidation during chronic ethanol consumption in rats Amino
Acids Volume 15, Numbers 1-2 / March, 1998.
10. Militante, J. D.; J. B. Lombardini (November 2002). "Treatment of hypertension with oral taurine: exp0/en.2005-
1007". Endocrinology 147: 3276.

1. Sadzuka Y, Inoue C, Hirooka S, et al. Effects of Theanine on alcohol metabolism and hepatic toxicity. Biol Pharm
Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1702-6.
2. Yofogoshi H, Kobayashi M, Mochizuki M, Terahima T. Effect on Theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain
monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats. Neurochemical Research. 1998;23: 667-73.
3. Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja L, Ohira H (2007). "L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress
responses". Biol Psychol 74 (1): 39–45.
4. Juneja L, Chu D, Okubo T, Nagato Y, Yokogoshi H. L-Theanine: a unique amino acid of Green Tea and its relaxation
effect in humans. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 1999; 10: 199-204.
5. Yokogoshi H, Kato Y, Sagesaka YM, Takihara-Matsuura T, Kakuda T, Takeuchi N. "Reduction effect of Theanine on
blood pressure and brain 5-hydroxyindoles in spontaneously hypertensive rats." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1995
6. Liang, W., Lee, A.H. and Binns, C.W. (2009). Tea consumption and ischemic stroke risk: A case-control study in
southern China. Stroke, 40, pp. 2480-2485.